Ideological War in the Era of Globalization

In 1945, Bung Karno wrote the “Political Manifesto.” This is a document that contains Indonesia’s political views and goals, including a vision in the world context influenced by World War II. In this article, Bung Karno emphasized the independence, sovereignty and unity of the Indonesian nation. He also highlighted the importance of diplomacy and international relations based on the principles of equality between countries.

Bung Karno’s writing is very relevant in the context of the ideological war in the era of globalization, because it describes Indonesia’s determination to maintain its independence – even though initially it was facing the pressures of imperialism and colonialism. The principles contained in Bung Karno’s writings, such as independence and unity, are still an important part of Indonesia’s worldview in facing ideological wars in the era of globalization.

It should also be noted that ideological wars in this era of globalization occur, among other things, due to the increasing connectivity and flow of information between countries, which in turn accelerates the spread of ideology. This nonsense alone can strengthen the ideological war. Therefore, a more dominant, or stronger, ideology can easily influence and spread to various countries.

In the era of globalization, aspects of ideological warfare include, among other things, the dissemination of information, the influence of global culture, and international economic relations. So here it is through the dissemination of information, where advances in communication technology – and social media – allow political ideologies and ideas to spread more quickly and more widely. Countries – or groups – that have an ideological agenda can reach a global audience more easily.

There’s no help about it, in the current era, ideological wars are still relevant – even though they have changed in form. Modern ideological wars often focus on global issues, and asymmetric influences can become more pronounced. Countries with large resources, very likely, have more influence in promoting their ideology than small countries or minority groups.

Recent developments in the global ideological war cover various aspects, which influence international relations and political dynamics in various parts of the world. So there is competition between liberal democracy and authoritarianism. Meanwhile in Western countries, faith in the liberal democratic model has been shaken. Several countries are experiencing high levels of political polarization, populism, and declining trust in democratic institutions. This creates space ¬for the spread of ideologies that challenge liberal democracy.

In this way, Bung Karno’s thoughts had a context of actualization, where Bung Karno’s views on ideological war were a reflection of his thoughts and vision in facing world upheaval in the post-war period. Here Bung Karno makes it clear that ideological war cannot simply be ignored, because ideological war is part of the struggle of countries that have just become independent from colonial rule. This was done to maintain sovereignty, to avoid domination by outsiders’ power.

So one of the main concepts in Bung Karno’s view is the Non-Aligned Movement, which cannot be outdated or weathered by time. Where Bung Karno, together with figures such as Jawaharlal Nehru from India and Josip Broz Tito from Yugoslavia, founded the Non-Aligned Movement at the Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung in 1955. This conference was also an important moment in the history of world diplomacy when countries Asia and Africa come together to discuss global issues, including ideological wars.

At this moment, Bung Karno expressed his understanding of the importance of unity and solidarity between the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa. The Proclaimer of the Republic of Indonesia emphasized the importance of not getting involved in the Cold War between the Western Block and the Eastern Block, and emphasized independence and impartiality as principles that must be upheld.

From there it became increasingly clear that Bung Karno was a staunch nationalist. Apart from promoting Indonesia, he also promoted the idea that the nations of Asia and Africa must be independent and sovereign over their own homelands. This nationalist view is one of the main foundations in the Pancasila ideology. Likewise, when Bung Karno emphasized the importance of independence in managing resources and making decisions as a nation – this is reflected in Pancasila which promotes the sovereignty and independence of the people.

So Bung Karno’s ideological thinking, in the context of the Pancasila ideology, has become the ideological foundation for the Indonesian state and plays an important role in shaping the character of the Indonesian state and society. This ideology underlines the basic principles held by the Indonesian people, and is not a utopia to be a guide in facing various challenges in recent history.

In this way, the Pancasila ideology becomes a set of basic principles that describe the values firmly held by the Indonesian state, such as independence, popular sovereignty, social justice, democracy and belief in the one and only God. So it was not a utopia when Bung Karno saw Pancasila as an inclusive world view, which could unite various groups of society into one unified state.

This orientation is also related to the statesman’s vision. Statesman’s Vision is a concept that describes a country’s worldview, implemented in foreign policy, with principles such as national sovereignty, non-intervention, and impartiality in international conflicts. This vision aims to promote peace, justice and stability in international relations.

This is also to support international solidarity, diplomacy and respect for international law. So the Statesman’s vision is relevant in facing globalization because it helps countries to maintain economic sovereignty and protect national interests amidst the flow of economic globalization, as well as to avoid ideological conflicts and military alliances that could threaten sovereignty.

Bung Karno’s call was very relevant in the context of the ideological war, because Bung Karno firmly rejected foreign interference in the internal affairs of independent countries. And he supports the principle of impartiality. The speech became the basis for the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement, which aimed to promote peace and international cooperation outside the major blocs.

It is now increasingly clear that globalization and ideological war are facts that cannot be separated in today’s world. Where globalization influences the way ideological wars develop and spread, while ideological wars remain an important factor in international competition and diplomacy.

(Prof. Dr. Ermaya Suradinata, SH, MH, MS, is the former Director General of Social and Political Affairs of the Indonesian Ministry of Home Affairs, Chancellor of IPDN, and former Governor of Lemhannas RI.)